About Armenia

About Armenia
The Republic of Armenia is situated on the boundary of Southern Caucasus and Front Asia and occupies the Northern- Eastern part of Armenian plateau. The highest point of this plateau is the Mount Ararat (5165 m). The RA occupies the territory of 29 743 sq. km and borders Georgia in the North, Azerbaijan on the East, Turkey on the West and Iran on the South. The average height above sea level is 1800 meters; the highest point is Mt. Aragats -4090 m; the lowest point is the gorge of river Debed (380 m). The greatest extent is 360 km. The climate is dry, continental.
Armenian Flag and Anthem

Armenian Flag

The law “On the State Flag of the Republic of Armenia” was adopted on August 24, 1990, by the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Armenia.

The State Flag is a rectangular panel with three equal horizontal stripes of red, blue and orange (from top to bottom).

The Anthem

"Mer Hayrenik" ("Our Fatherland")

The Anthem of the Republic of Armenia was adopted on July 1, 1991, by the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Armenia. It is based on the Anthem of the First Armenian Republic (1918-1920), but with different lyrics. The author of the lyrics is poet Mikael Nalbandian (1829-1866).

The Coat of Arms
The law “On the State Coat of Arms of the Republic of Armenia” was adopted on April 19, 1992, by the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Armenia.
Culture of Armenia

Originality and uniqueness of Armenia stands on three pillars – the unique charm of its mountainous nature, the original national culture and ancient Christian heritage. It is important to note that in 301 Armenia first accepted Christianity as a state religion. This is the main wealth of Armenia, which Armenia managed to survive for the whole dramatic history.  Armenia situated at the crossroad of routes between East and West being able to resist each of the powerful conquerors of the people remained faithful to their culture.

Armenian material and spiritual culture was based on the rich cultures of the ancient inhabitants of Armenian Highland, all the ethnic elements that are involved in the formation of the Armenian people.

Of course, here the role of outstanding Urartian culture is the great. Till 301 Armenian culture developed under two influences: Western (Hellenism) and East (Parthia). However, these influences only complemented and enriched the national culture. Christianity is one of the powerful sources of world culture, has created new forms in architecture, art and music. An important landmark in the development of people's culture was the creation in 405 by Mesrop Mashtots Armenian alphabet and the national literature. 

Architecture

The mountainous landscape of the country identified the lines of its architecture. Powerfully and monumentally, like the mountains surrounding, stand the monuments of medieval architecture. The stony soil, the jags of surrounding ridges and outlines of architectural monuments merge into a single image.

The traditional architecture of Armenia is reflected in temple architecture of churches, monasteries, convents, etc. The early Medieval Architecture (V-VI centuries) is represented mostly by basilicas. A Basilica- is a structure of rectangular shape, devided generally into three rows of columns, at the same time the central part rises above the others. At the end of VI-VII centuries Greek-cross and central-domed samples of temple architecture. The symmetrical cross-shaped facade of a temple was decorated with the side arches and crowned by a huge dome visible from distant corners of the temple. Later the temple shapes changed; simple and strict church structures become more elegant and complex. The shapes were improved; new elements such as domical drum were added. But in whole, traditional temple structures possess common basic features. Monastic complex is a special type of temple architecture. It consisted of a number of elements – a temple, chapels, belfries, household buildings - refectory, library, vestry etc. The complex was often surrounded by a wall with adjacent dwelling houses. A little church was sometimes erected above the main gate. The first monasteries originated in the VII century; the XII century saw the prosperity period of their construction.

There are a lot of feudal castles across Armenia – fortresses, palaces, castles, caravanserais and bridges. Armenia is often referred to as "the open-air museum". The magnificent Hellenistic structure Garni, the Sun Temple (III – II BC), domed Echmiadzin temple (IV century), Zvartnotz (VII century), and the medieval jewel – Gegard (IV – XIII centuries) are known all over the world.

For what visit to Armenia

National park Armenia has a very rich nature.In this small land are growing more then 3200 varieties of vegetation of which 120 grow only in the territory of Armenia. Even many varieties have armenian names. The animal world is also very diverse. There are about 12 000 types. Many of them are also unique for the Armenian natural world.Armenian nature played a major role in the history of Armenian people. In the same way as in the days of the Flood it has become a cradle of formation of a new humanity later it helped people in the days of struggle against cruel enemies.

mayr ator

xachqareraDue to the high mountains and deep gorges Armenian castles were unassailable. Rivers overflowed when enemy passed through them and lakes with their brilliance made attacking soldiers blind. The most astounding thing about Armenian food is that it is still organic. That’s why tourists visiting Armenia just can’t stop eating our fruit and vegetables. They say fruit and vegetable are so tasty in Armenia because of the rocky land and the Sun. Armenia is rich with various sorts of apricot, peach, cherry, apple, fig, pomegranate, grape, plum, quince, pear, etc. Armenian food is rich with vegetables, greens and spices too, like tomato, cucumber, pepper, potato, melon, watermelon, onion, eggplant, squash, parsley, basil, cress, coriander, dill and the list is endless. Armenians also cultivate wheat, rice, peas, beans, walnut, hazelnut and almonds. 

 sinfonya

tree karabagh

Armenian cuisine is quite popular with its traditional bread called lavash. It is flat, thin and soft bread that can be dried and kept for quite a long term. Lavash symbolizes life and wisdom. In ancient times, lavash was used during battles as it lasted long and saved the soldiers from starvation. Mothers cooked lavash, dried it and put in the bags of the soldiers Lavash is the popular national Armenian bread, without which no festive dinner can pass. It is a very thin layer of bread cooked in an underground clay oven.

Resorts in Armenia

HANQAVAN

Not far from Tsakhkadzor, in the valley of the river Marmarik 1900 m above sea level flow the hot waters of average mineral consistence (42°), (very much like those of Essentuki), rich in bromine, iodine, and boron these waters are used for baths, potable treatment and bottling. The climate is temperate in that summers are rather mild (the average highs for July varying between 16 and 18°). Winter is moderately cold (-7° in January). The annual precipitations rate is 600 mm. The sunshine hours per annum equals 2200.

SEVAN

Lake Sevan (Geghama Sea). Sevan is one of the three large lakes in the Armenian highland. In ancient times it was called Gegharkunik or Geghama Sea. Sevan is the largest lake in Caucasus as well as one on the largest and highest freshwater lakes of the world. In summer, the middle temperature of lake, surface is 18-23 degrees above zero. Sevan consists of two unequal parts - Big Sevan and Small Sevan. Sevan is fed by 28 rivers of which Gavaraget, Argithci, Martuni, Karthcaghbyur, Masrik, Dzknaget are the most famous. And starting just one river Hrazdan.

 

 AGHVERAN

Aghveran is a perfect resort for visitors. It is located on 50 km to the north of Yerevan, at a height of 1550 meters above sea level. The eponymous village Aghveran is one of the most beautiful places of Armenia. Since ancient times, the city was famous for its curative climate and picturesque scenery of the surrounding mountains. Comfortably nestled among thick foliage, full with fresh mountain air the resort perfectly combines the capabilities of leisure, health and relaxation.

 ARZNI

In a picturesque gorge of the river Hrazdan, at 24 km to the North of Yerevan, 1250 metres above sea level, in the canyon nestles a balneological resort Arzni famos for its mineral water. The healing strength of this water is known since old times but the officcially its countdown as a resort started in 1925. These waters rich in chlorides, hydrocarbonic elements and sodium as well as carbon gas, are used for baths and drinking. They are applied while treating patients with cardio-vascular problems, gastro-intestinal diseases, lever- and metabolism-related complications. The average temperature in the area ranges from +19С in summer to -19С in winter. The bulk of this terrain is covered with woods. Along the Arzni canyon flows the river Hrazdan.

 JERMUK

Jermuk - one of the most beautiful places in Armenia: forests and high alpine meadows, flat plateaus and low mountains. The huge impression picturesque waterfall: a 70m height cascading into the gorge crystal spring water transparency. This famous resort city of Armenia in the north-eastern part of Vayots Dzor is located at an altitude of 2,000 meters above sea level. Arpa River flows through the city. The climate is mountainous: cool summer, with a predominance of sunny weather, mild winters, the comparative snowy, windless. The town's name is associated with the existing hot mineral springs, which are indicated in the Armenian language common word "Jermuk" ("Jerm" - with the arm. "Hot" "warm").

 TSAKHADZOR

In late autumn Tsakhkadzor turns to a fairy tale. Pure white snow covers valley and downhills and magnificent beauty tempts winter sport lovers. The snow sparkles under sunlight: winter in the valley is sоft, with 280-290 sunny days and average - 3°C in January. Since early winter comfortable hotels crowd with adventure-seekers as the ski season begins and lasts from mid-December to mid-March. Tsakhkadzor is a perfect resort for skiers: heavy snowfalls provide a resistant snow cover, thickness of which reaches 2 meters. On the hillsides of Teghenis (2819m) both hard-headed thrill-seekers and inexperienced beginners can find suitable pistes. Trainings held by professional instructors, hire of ski equipment, snowboards and sleds are at your services.

DILIJAN 

Dilijan is one of the most popular Spa towns in Armenia. Known for its mountains, wild forest, one of the most qualitative in the world to drinking water. In the city there are many resorts and hotels.

 

Sights in Armenia

Noravank

Noravank is a 13th century Armenian monastery, located 122km from Yerevan in a narrow gorge made by the Amaghu river, near the city of Yeghegnadzor, Armenia. The monastery is best known for its two-storey Surp Astvatsatsin (Holy Mother of God) church, which grants access to the second floor by way of a narrow stone-made staircase jutting out from the face of building.

 

 The Khor Virap

The Khor Virais an Armenian Apostolic Church monastery located in the Ararat plain in Armenia, near the border with Turkey. The monastery was host to a theological seminary and was the residence of Armenian Catholicos. Khor Virap's notability as a monastery and pilgrimage site is attributed to the fact that Grigor Lusavorich, who later became Saint Gregory the Illuminator, was initially imprisoned here for 13 years by King Tiridates III of Armenia. Saint Gregory subsequently became the king's religious mentor, and they led the proselytizing activity in the country. In the year 301, Armenia was the first country in the world to be declared a Christian nation.

 

 Tatev

TTatev monastery is situated near the village of the same name in part of Syunik, ancient -Zangezur. Tatev monastery was built during the 9-13th cc. as an Armenian intellectual center where philosophers, musicians, painters, calligraphers, and monks lived. This monastery’s teachers produced manuscripts for the whole Armenian world. The complex was begun between 895 and 906. St. Gregory the Illuminator, who spread the word of Christ throughout Armenia, is buried here in a small church․

 

Haghpat

Haghpat - significant monument of town-planning of medieval Armenia, distinguished by unity and compactness of an asymmetrical layout, beautiful silhouette on mountainous terrain. The monastery of Haghpat since 1996, is in the list of UNESCO world heritage sites.

Geghard

Geghard - monastery complex, a unique architectural construction, entered in the UNESCO world heritage list in 2000. The monastery is located in the gorge of the Azat river, about 40 km to the South-East of Yerevan.

 

Garni

Garni is a temple complex located in the Kotayk Province of Armenia, situated approximately 32 km southeast from Yerevan.

 

 Sanahin Monastery

Sanahin Monastery is located in the same name village, on a small plateau, the river canyon Debed, at an altitude of 1000 m above sea level. The exact date of foundation of the monastery has not been established. However, it is known that in X-XI cc. the number of monks reached here a few hundred people. During this period, the value of acquired Sanahin in Armenia Educational Center, a school inhis monastery was transformed into the Academy, known in history as the Academy of St. Gregory Armenian Magistros Pahlavuni. The monastery occupies a small area of about 2m in the central part of which, around the main temple Sanahin - Astvatsatsin - built Amenaprkich Church and Chapel of St. Gregory (X c.), the Academy (XI c.), stacks (1063y.), the gallery (X at the end.), vestibule (1181g.) and tower (XIII c.).

 

 Stepanakert

Stepanakert (Armenian: Ստեփանակերտ) is the largest city and capital of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a de facto independent republic, though is internationally recognized as a part of Azerbaijan. The city population comprises about 53,000 ethnic Armenians.

Shushi

The ancient stronghold of Shushi was the administrative, religious, cultural and educational center of Artsakh (currently Republic of Nagorno Karabakh), one of the 15 states of the Historic Armenia. Though, Shushi has a very rich history, the main sign of it has been created not in the distant past, but in our days. After the May 9, 1992 - the heroic victory of the Armenian people in the Kharabakh war for liberation - one of the most glorious pages of the Newest History of Armenian people is associated with Shushi. And henceforth, for every Armenian the first and the main meaning of the word SHUSHI is VICTORY!

 

 Yerevan

Yerevan (Armenian: Երևան, Armenian pronunciation: [jɛɾɛˈvɑn]) is the capital and largest city of Armenia and one of the world's oldest continuously-inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country. It has been the capital since 1918, the thirteenth in the history of Armenia.

The history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. After World War I, Yerevan became the capital of the Democratic Republic of Armenia as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide settled in the area. The city expanded rapidly during the 20th century as Armenia became one of the fifteen republics in the Soviet Union. In fifty years, Yerevan was transformed from a town of a few thousand residents within the Russian Empire, to Armenia's principal cultural, artistic, and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government.

With the growth of the economy of the country, Yerevan has been undergoing major transformation as many parts of the city have been the recipient of new construction since the early 2000s, and retail outlets such as restaurants, shops and street cafes, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied. As of 2011 estimates, the population of Yerevan was 1,121,900 people making up to 34% of the total population of Armenia.

Yerevan was named the 2012 World Book Capital by UNESCO.

 

Oshakan

During the Arsacid Dynasty of the Kingdom of Armenia, it served as the main city of the province of Ayrarat and the capital of its Aragatsotn district from which the Amatuni noble family ruled. However, it is perhaps best known for the Church of Saint Mesrop Mashtots which also happens to be the burial place of Saint Mesrop Mashtots, the creator of the Armenian alphabet. The church houses his grave and was rebuilt by Catholicos George IV in 1875. Wall paintings on the interior were done in 1960 by the artist H. Minasian.

 Byurakan

Byurakan (Armenian: Բյուրական, also Romanized as Burakan, Bjurakan, and Biurakan) is a village in the Aragatsotn Province of Armenia on the slope of Mount Aragats. The village contains the basilica of Saint Hovhannes of the 10th c. and Artavazik Church of the 7th c. with a huge 13th c.khachkar monument directly across the ravine. It is also the site of the Byurakan Observatory.

Saghmosavank

The main temples of the monasteries erected by Prince Vache Vachutyan - the Church of Zion in Saghmosavank (1215) and the Church of Karapet in Hovhannavank (1216-1221) belong to the same type of cross-winged domed structure with two-floor annexes in all the corners of the building. Subcupola space predominates in the interiors of both churches, which is reflected in the exterior shapes of these structures.

 

Goshavank "Monastery of Gosh"

Previously known as Nor Getik is a 12-13th century Armenian monastery located in the village of Gosh in the Tavush Province of Armenia. Today the monastery is not a functioning religious complex, although it remains a popular tourist destination and has recently undergone some light restoration. The impressive monastery which has remained in relatively good condition also houses one of the world's finest examples of a khachkar.

Museums in Armenia

Aram Khachaturian is a great Armenian composer, an outstanding representative of 20th century’s music, one of the most original contemporary composers. His works are part of the world music’s “gold portfolio”.The museum was founded in 1984. The museum has about 18,000 items collected from 55 countries. Music library contains 3500 CDs, gift to the museum Canadian-Armenian Garmiku Grigoryan, and 350 tapes provided by the French Embassy. The museum is one of the main centers of research on Khachaturian.

 

Yervant Kochar Museum was founded in 1984, based on a study of the wizard. Yervant Kochar Museum is historical avant-garde in the region. Creativity of the artist and the anexceptional center of the sculpture Yervant Kochar / 1899-1979 / is one of the most interesting events of the XX century. In 1923-36, while living in Paris, he became a legitimate member of the "Paris School" of artists. The works of the great artist are exhibited in many museums around the world, but the visitor can get a full impression of the artist's works only in E. Kochar Museum in Yerevan.

 

Hovhannes Tumanyan House-Museum (February 19, 1869 - March 23, 1923), is considered to be one of the greatest Armenian poets and writers. Tumanyan is usually regarded in Armenian circles as «All-Armenian poet».Hovhannes Tumanian Museum functions since 1953. The founder and the first director was the poet’s daughter. Copies of manuscripts, photo documents and original illustrations of Tumanian writing.In 1969, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the great writer, a new two-storey building was built to house materials related to Tumanyans life and work including his personal items, documents, manuscripts, sketches, and publications in more than 40 languages.

 

The M.Saryan House-Museum. It was founded in 27 November 1967. Today, the Museum's fund has 247 pieces of storage. During 38 years of its existence the Museum's major activities were collecting, exhibiting, and publishing. In 1932, a house with a studio was built for Saryan in Yerevan. In his lifetime, the master received hundreds of visitors from different countries. Government of Armenia, according to which in 1967 a museum adjoining the residential part was constructed` in his lifetime.

The Charents Museum of Literature and Arts was founded in 1954 based on the materials of literary and theatrical museum and study center of Music named after R. Melikyan. In 1967 he was named in honor of the great poet Yeghishe Charents. The museum has published manuals and writing sections of a number of Armenian artists in a series of literary heritage. The museum organizes workshops and exhibitions. An impressive collection of rare printed books and newspapers of the early period, too, exhibited at the show.

 On the northern part of Mashtots avenue there is Matenadaran (a book depository), one of the world's most ancient libraries. Its collections comprise ancient Armenian books and miniature paintings that have gained world-wide fame. Among its unique treasures are the works of ancient classical authors and rare manuscripts that have come to our days only in the Armenian translation. Several monuments to the outstanding Armenian cultural figures are located in the courtyard of Matenadaran.

 House-museum of Sergey Paradjanov: The museum was opened in 1991, a year after the death of Paradjanov. The museum contains more than 200 works by the artist, and furniture of his house in Tiflis. Collection and archives of the exhibition is constantly expanding. Over the years the museum has organized 26 exhibitions, including at Cannes, Thessaloniki, Tokyo, Moscow, Rome, Tehran and Beijing. Zaven Sargsyan, Director of the Museum is a well known photographer and friend of Paradjanov. Paradjanov was more genius than talent: his rare visual interpretation of culture embrace everything that he saw or felt or experienced. His work is universal, unlimited, original, with no direct analogy in the art world. Paradjanov, a contemporary and collaborator of Fellini, the viewer is amazing beauty, imagination and artistry of their work.

National (state) Gallery of Armenia, the main Fine Arts Museum of Armenia. The gallery was founded in 1921 and is a part of the museum complex at the Republic Square in Yerevan. Art Gallery occupies the top floors of the complex from the third to eighth, while the lower two floors of the building is the National History Museum of Armenia. National Gallery of Armenia is one of the largest museums in the territory of the CIS, and for the meeting of Armenian art - the largest in the world. The museum presents the most complete (after the name of the National Gallery of IK Ayvazovsky’s collection in Feodosia), paintings by Aivazovsky. The funds of the Art Gallery of Armenia holds more than 20 thousand works of art, the foundation of Western Europe has more than 350 paintings and canvas are also stored risunkami.Zdes such well-known Western European masters as Chagall, Rubens, Van Dyck, Tintoretto, Courbet, Kandinsky, and others; famous Russian painters - Repin, Bryullov, Surikov, Petrov - Vodkin and others, as well as Armenian painters - Sureniants, Garza, Fetvadzhyana, Bashindgaghyan and many others.

History Museum of Yerevan was founded in 1931 Since 1936, he was located in the building of the "Blue Mosque". From 1994 to 2005, the museum was located in the building of a girls' school, and later - in the premises of a school in Yerevan. In 2006 the museum moved to the building of City Hall.The museum of history of the city collected about 80 thousand items, which represent different periods of the existence of Yerevan, starting with the founding of the city until today.The museum contains ancient household items, unique medieval books, graphic pictures of foreign travelers who visited Yerevan, military flags, medals and weapons, jewelry, and, of course, the historical record of Urartu King Argishti I, where the date of founding of the city-fortress of Erebuni (now Yerevan) - 782 BC. Oe.

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